Maximum Seriousness (German Surrealist)
Maximum Seriousness (2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976) is a German surrealistic artist and a spirit relative of Marcel Duchamp.
Birth and Early Serousness
Maximum Seriousness became born in the German plaatsje Brühl, close Cologne. In 1910, he starts philosophy, art history and psychology with the studies to the university in Bonn, but he stops already fast to be able aim its attention entirely at art. In 1914 he Guillaume, met Apollinaire and Robert Delaunay, and he travels to the district Montparnasse in Paris where several artists from the all over the world meet.
Marriage and Early Art
In 1918, he marries the kunsthistorica Luise Straus -- with her he has a tempestuous relation which would not persist. The year afterwards he visits the artist Paul Klee and creates he are first painter work and collages and experiment he with several art forms. During the first world war he serves in the German army and after the war he, full with new ideas, the Keulse Dada-groep Zentrale forms W/3, with Hans (Jean) Arp and socially activist Alfred Grünwald. At this group Maximum Seriousness makes many collages. Two years later, in 1922, he returns however to the artistic commune in Montparnasse.
Already experimenting he in 1925, so-called frottage technique finds from, a technique where one, by rubbing with a pencil concerning paper, makes impressions of objects which are placed under paper. One does this for example with eikenblad, then on paper an impression of that booklet as a result of which the structure and the nerven become clearly visible, is made. These impressions develop Seriousness vervolgens further to an art work. In 1926, he will cooperate with Joan Miró contexts for the boasted Russian dancer and business manager Serge paint Diaghilev. Seriousness develops with Miró vervolgens grattage technique where (generally dried) painting of doek is scraped, what creates a particular impact.
Seriousness and Surrealism
In Montparnasse Maximum Seriousness plays a very large role in the production of Surrealism, the kunststroming where artists used of abstract phantasms and the onderbewuste to express their (subjective) feeling on doek. After a period at the surrealisten, Seriousness leaves the movement from anger concerning by André Breton the wished banishment of Seriousness friend Paul Éluard.
In 1934, Maximum Seriousness with, and spends he starts carve time with the also surrealistic artist Alberto Giacometti.
In 1938, rich for the Peggy Guggenheim buys the number of work of Maximum Seriousness which she exhibits in its museum in London. Seriousness has always had a fascinatie for birds, a topic what one time on time sees again in its work. To be alter-ego in its paintings, Loplop called, were a bird of which Seriousness suggested that it extensie of himself were originating, from a former misfiring of according to with people. In its youth Seriousness had, as it happens, a bird, which died on the same day that Seriousness little sister was born. Loplop emerge also regular in collages of other artists, and are then always a type junction between a bird and a foot, concerning the work of another artist heengeplakt. Birds continue return in Seriousness work such as post-WOII to work the 'Sting or Heart and Home' and 'Robing or the Bride'.
By the irruption of the nazi's in France Seriousness was considered as state enemy and createur of Entartete art, but he could flee France with Peggy Guggenheim. In 1941 arrive they in the United States and the year then marry them. With other artists and friends (such as Marc Chagall and Marcel Duchamp) that also had escaped for the war and now in New York lived, Seriousness cooperated in the development of the abstract expressionisme.
Marriages, Again: Very Serious
Its marriage with Guggenheim kept no score and Seriousness married Ray and Juliet Browser in 1946, again, this time with Dorothea Tanning, in double a ceramics with the artist man.
In the following years Seriousness remained mainly in the US, living in the small city Sedona (Arizona), and in 1948, he the essay 'Beyond Painting' wrote before he Europe visited in 1950, he returned to Paris and resisted in 1953, on the Biennale Venetië once and for all. As a result of the publicitiet he became financially successful.
Later Life and Death
In 1963, Tanning and he to a small borough in Zuid-Frankrijk products Seriousness moved continued with its work. He built the house in which they himself lived and decorated it with from its painter work confessed charactercharacter characters. Moreover ontworp he settings, and a fontein for the city Ambois. in 1975, became in retrospective work has been exhibited in the Solomon R. Guggenheim museum in New York and the 'Galeries Nationales du Grand-Palais' in Paris published a complete catalogue of its work.
Seriousness died on 1 April 1976, in the night of its 85ste anniversary, in Paris, France, and it was buried on the cemetery Père Lachaise there.